Sunday, August 23, 2020


CITIZENSHIP ANALYSIS OF UNEMPLOYMENT LEVELS IN UK, EUROPE, AND THE WORLD - Essay Example e first time (4.1 percent in Wales, 4.7 percent in the U.K).4 Manufacturing assumes a more conspicuous job in the Welsh economy than it does in the U.K economy overall; it represents 27.8 percent of Welsh GDP contrasted with 20.8 percent of U.K GDP.5 Secretary of State for Wales, Peter Hain said on 22nd March 2006: â€Å"There are 118,000 additional individuals in employments in Wales since 1997; the joblessness level is right around 40 percent lower than in 1997; and the 34 percent development in sends out somewhere in the range of 1999 and 2005 has beated the U.K normal of 25.6 per cent.†6 Comparative joblessness levels in Europe and the World Western Europe: The Welsh joblessness pace of 4.1 was lower just to Switzerland’s 3.8. Next came Norway and Ireland, both 4.2, trailed by U.K 4.7, Luxembourg 4.9, Denmark 5.5, Sweden 6, the Netherlands 6.5, and Portugal 7.3. Italy and Finland both 7.9, Belgium 8.4, France 10, Spain 10.1, Greece 10.8 and Germany 11.6. Genuine Wage Unemployment (work advertise neglects to react to request): Governments battle it by lessening worker's organization powers, expanding companies’ capacities to change compensation, and empowering momentary agreements. Frictional Unemployment (ncomplete data in the work showcase): Governments expanding information on opportunities through ‘job centres’, and expanding the motivating force to scan for employments (for example by decreasing joblessness benefits; bringing down assessments on compensation). Geological joblessness (failure of individuals to move from zones of low interest for work to territories of appeal): Governments give local motivations to new organizations to situate in high joblessness regions, and diminish boundaries to free development of laborers. Auxiliary joblessness (failure of laborers to change the sort of employment they do {e.g. from IT to engineering}): Governments by give motivations to retrain, and decrease topographical stability (encouraging laborers development to regions where their abilities are in high demand).9 In the United Kingdom during the

Friday, August 21, 2020

Strategic Management Practice Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4750 words

Key Management Practice - Assignment Example In the year 2012, Sony answered to its investors that the organization encountered a significant loss of more than 67 billion Yen (Sony 2012). The year earlier, in 2011, Sony had accomplished another stunning loss of about 200 billion Yen which is a result of a powerlessness to accomplish income development in an immersed worldwide serious market with so much organizations as Samsung, Sharp, Sanyo and numerous different gadgets makers. Sony, done continuing a market position as spearheading and imaginative organization, faces generous key issues in accomplishing development and catching the premiums of various worldwide socioeconomics to choose Sony customer hardware over that of contending item contributions. This report investigations the current serious situation of Sony Corporation, concentrating on the particular key issues confronting the firm, the objectives the association ought to build dependent on examined economic situations, suggests key bearing for the firm, and depicts a presentation the board framework that ought to be suitable for building up the suggested system. To address the firm’s principle issues, there are a few models that can help with leading a careful examination of Sony. The organization, because of its powerlessness to enhance progressive items and serious nearness worldwide in the shopper hardware industry, has been not able to accomplish upper hand. Barney (1991) gives the VRIO model, a methodology examination that investigates four components of firm movement, these being irregularity, worth, supremacy and inner firm association. Incentive in this model is the degree to which an organization has the ability of abusing openings and to protect itself from different serious dangers (Barney and Hesterly 2006). Worth is estimated on whether a firm’s all out capital uses or work ventures are more affordable than the

Monday, July 6, 2020

Human Motivations in On the Road - Literature Essay Samples

Author Jack Kerouac once said, â€Å"My fault, my failure, is not in the passions I have, but in my lack of control of them.† Kerouac believed his fate consisted of much more than bad luck and poor decision making and attributed it to the naturally occurring, subconscious processes of his mind. In his novel On the Road, Kerouac writes about this phenomena of internal concepts that drive human beings to act the way they do, and in this specific case, live. Kerouac uses On the Road to tell tales of the journey from the earlier years of his life. Kerouac portrays himself as alter-ego Sal Paradise and influential friend Neal Cassady as Dean Moriarty. Although Kerouac cannot put what Sal and Dean are pursuing into a single word or phrase besides calling it IT, the essence of their story helps define what they are in search of. Sal and Dean each have their own distinct disposition and perspective, but are united by their internal desires. The characters in Kerouac’s novel On The Road portray the power of human motivations as they try to fulfill their personal needs according to Maslow’s Hierarchy. Sal Paradise and Dean Moriarty were strongly guided by human motivations that provided incentive and prompted the initial action of their journey. Kerouac provides simple, yet vital details in the opening of the book writing, â€Å"My wife and I split up. I had just gotten over a serious illness that I won’t bother to talk about, except that it had something to do with the miserably weary split-up and my feeling that everything was dead. With the Coming of Dean Moriarty began the part of my life you could call my life on the road† (9). Sal, living with his aunt and unsure what to do with his life, decides to meat Dean in his hometown of Denver. Sal is too experienced to be considered an adolescent, yet is not ready to be an adult. When Sal leaves New York City, he begins a seven year moratorium, an attempt to â€Å"transce nd and transform himself† (Dunphy), that is best defined as his life on the road. To get a better understanding of what may have motivated Sal and Dean, it helps to have an understanding of Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs and how it applies to the psychology of human motivations. Maslow’s 1943 study A Theory of Motivation was vital to psychologists, for they helped explain motivations and innate human curiosity. Maslow stated that all human beings hold wants and desires that influence their behavior. He claims humans are driven by unsatisfied needs, and that only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. He arranged these possible unsatisfied needs in the order they must be met, increasing in complexity. The list consists of physiological, safety and security, social, self esteem, and self actualization needs. As the person satisfies needs higher up in the list, the more human and psychologically healthy the person is. As the novel progresses, t he reader is able to watch Sal and Dean strive to meet the needs that still remained unsatisfied to them, serving as their motivation throughout the story. In the beginning of the novel, Sal must overcome his physiological needs. Specifically, he needs to overcome the illness that plagued him after he was separated from his wife. The mysterious sickness inhibits him from maintaining a high quality of life. According to Maslow, if physiological conditions are not met, then there is no way to satisfy more complex needs since psychological needs are essential to life. While Sal’s basic needs may have involved numerous factors, Kerouac depicts Dean’s needs in a much simpler manner. Dean screams to Sal a during one of his visits to New York City, â€Å"so long’s we can eat, son, y’ear me? I’m hungry, I’m starving, let’s eat right now!† (8). Dean’s love of food may have been strong, but he also had another drive, his sex drive, that was much stronger than his appetite. Kerouac does not try to hide Dean’s drive, being blunt from the opening of the novel that Dean was in constant pursuit of women, with more of his emphasis on personal pleasure than intimacy. So strong was this drive that Kerouac wrote, â€Å"for to him sex was the one and only hold and important thing in life† (2). Dean’s simple struggles immediately help add to a romantic image. He is much more spontaneous and free-spirited than the analytical Sal, who yearns to be free. This image helps further depict a slight tension between Sal and Dean, where Sal is the man the reader sees in him or herself, but Dean is the character the reader wishes to be. Once physiological needs are met, matters of safety and security can be questioned. Maslow considered adults to be more concerned with their security during times of need, while young children display signs of insecurity and the need to be safe. This point is sign ificant because Dean and Sal are no longer young children, but at the same time they are trying to keep away from full-time adulthood. With views on safety and security unlike those of children or mature adults, Sal and Dean follow neither perspective. Instead, they find their safety and security in unconventional ways and places. Most notably, they find safety and security on the road. Sal and Dean could not say they were most safe and secure in the comforts of their own homes, which would be a typical answer, because they did not have homes. Instead, they embraced life on the road, finding comfort in simple pleasures that the road provided. Most importantly, they tried to preserve the safety of their well-being, traveling constantly to repress any feelings or emotions from their respective hometowns that may have been haunting each of them. Perhaps the best explanation for their comfort felt on the road is provided by researcher Michael Hess, â€Å"For me, there is nothing better than a road trip, especially after I settle into the drive and leave past stress of the packing and leaving behind and the future stress of getting to the place you are going is still far away.† It is likely Sal and Dean felt comfort in this concept. Once they stepped foot on the road, worries about what happened in past and what was approaching in the future faded away, and instead they were able to appreciate each moment as it happened, and focus on the present. Because of the road’s power to consume all thoughts, needs like job security, family security, and property security were fulfilled because they were no longer a priority in their everyday lives. With no priorities, Sal was able to follow Dean’s lead, and search for the answers to questions that continually piqued his curiosity. At the onset of his pursuit, Sal naively thought his search would yield direct results, what ever they may be. Quickly he realized, â€Å"it was my dream that scr ewed up, the stupid hearthside idea that it would be wonderful to follow one great red line across America instead of trying various roads and routes† (11). Sal was neither shocked or discouraged by his findings because he had begun to feel the safety of the road. Dean also had an unconventional view on safety and security, and it was evidenced by his approach to driving and the way he dangerously experimented with drugs and alcohol. Dean is described as, â€Å"the circus that every boy dreams of joining. Dean’s road is pure carnal excitement, all speed and jazz and sex† (Leland). Kerouac makes it very apparent that Dean is not phased by circumstanced that traditionally would be considered dangerous. Numerous times, Dean is scolded for his reckless driving, but then is glamorized as a hero by cutting the duration of a trip in half. When Dean wrecks a car with other passengers on board, the passengers immediately tell Sal, â€Å"He’s a devil with a c ar, isn’t he?– and according to his story he must be with the women† (231). This documented reckless abandon is an example of the lack of fear that Dean holds. Once on the road, Sal and Dean never feel as if they are in harm’s way, and due to this they are motivated to advance on to higher needs. Social needs follow those of safety and security. Maslow considered social needs to be those that motivate a person to find friends, belong, and give and receive love. They are often referred to simply as belonging needs. Sal feels the urge to belong as the story begins, since his divorce from his wife creates the need to leave New York City and start life on the road. Typically, the need to belong it most immediate in terms of family members and loved ones whom a person spends most of their time with. Since Sal was leaving what remained of his family behind, he was able to bypass the need to belong to a family and instead search for which ever group he b elieved he was a part of. The search for friendship is one of the key motivations to belong, and On the Road chronicles Sal and Dean’s unique friendship. At the beginning of the novel, Sal and Dean are just acquaintances who have the same goals; to avoid loneliness and alienation. So desperate to belong was Sal, that he ignored the warning from his aunt before he left. Kerouac wrote about the warning, â€Å"Although my aunt warned me that he would get me in trouble, I could hear a new call and see a new horizon I was a young writer and I wanted to take off† (8). Sal was willing to leave the safety and comforts of his hometown, a need in which he had previously satisfied, in order to find the place where he believed he belonged. When Sal arrived in San Francisco, he realized that Sal lived recklessly, and although he had wives, ex-wives, and children, yet much like himself, had no real family. Traveling back to Denver, one of the four cross country trips taken i n the novel, Sal again witnesses Dean’s struggles to belong. Denver is Dean’s hometown, and he and his father are well known for being car thieves and drunks. Sal realizes that as much as Dean talks about being loved, his relationships are all superficial. Their friendship grows as the pair continues to hit the road. They meet up with other transients, and question whether the road is ultimately where they belong. Earlier in the novel, Sal is in near awe of Dean, and just along for the ride, while Dean calls the shots. This dynamic of their friendship changes in San Francisco when Sal sees that Dean has been thrown out of the house by his second wife, Camille. Sal no longer feels like he is the one who must listen to Dean, but instead decides to take some stake in the direction, or IT, that they are pursuing in their friendship. â€Å"By taking custody of Dean and IT, Sal changes from being little more than an admirer caught up in Dean’s wake to becomin g Dean’s father-defender† (Dardess). Their needs changed as the novel progressed, and because of this their friendship evolved. When Sal saw Dean struggle with his wife, he knew he was finding where he belonged. He thought, â€Å"now his eyes were blank and looking through me. It was probably the pivotal point of our friendship when he realized that I had actually spent some hours thinking about him and his troubles, and he was trying to place that in his tremendously and tormented mental categories† (188-189). Sal knew that their friendship was special, and he was finally able to see a more human side of Dean as he broke down in San Francisco. Dean realizes that as strong as his power is to manipulate Sal, he equally belongs to Sal for helping keep him alive. This friendship fulfills the need to belong, and is another essential part of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs depicted in On the Road. When belonging needs are fulfilled, the needs for esteem are the next motivations for Sal and Dean. Maslow considered these esteem needs to be those from the self and the esteem that is received from others. If these needs are satisfied, a person feels valuable and confident. If these needs are not met, a person is left feeling weak, worthless, and frustrated. Dean relies on his esteem throughout the novel, cherishing the temporary highs from the daily thrills he seeks, while within himself he knows that his future is not as bright as his facetious looks on the outside. Dean was usually the driver during their travels, and he always believed that he would find something great at the end of each of their journeys. Sal, much wiser, yet still skeptical, kept quiet, as he did not want to crush Dean’s false hopes that he doubted were in reach. Dean, motivated to keep his esteem high, enjoyed every moment of their journey, almost as if he was oblivious to the realities of their situations. Near the end of their journey, the pair trav eled through Mexico. Dean was convinced this was where IT lied, and continued to convince himself saying, â€Å"I certainly damn well did, oh me, oh my, I don’t know what to do I’m so excited and sweetened in this morning world. We’ve finally got to heaven. It couldn’t be any cooler, it couldn’t be any grander, it couldn’t be anything† (282). Dean is only correct in one part of his statement, the part where he says it couldn’t be anything. Kerouac emphasizes this to show that Dean is trying to justify the choices he has made, choices that have brought himself and Sal miles from their home. Dean tries to build his esteem, and shrink his cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance is best explained as the phenomena that describes the uncomfortable feeling when a person begins to understand that something the person believes to be true is, in fact, not true (Myers). The cognitive dissonance theory explains why Dean was driv en to make such bold statements. He was trying to justify his actions and alleviate the amount of tension that was building up because of the decisions that he has had to make. Dean’s false high self esteem was likely to keep spirits up, but Sal understood that the reality was that they had traveled many miles, yet gotten no where. Finally, when all other needs are met, a human being is motivated to fulfill the needs of self-actualization. These needs are described by Maslow as those in which a person was â€Å"born to do.† He said, â€Å"A musician must make music, an artist must paint, and a poet must write.† Sal and Dean struggle with the idea of self actualization because they spend much of their time trying to satisfy the four lower level needs. One can not try to understand the concept of self, if he or she is still searching for his or her identity. Dean, as discussed previously, is too immature and unrealistic to experience true thoughts of self-a ctualization, but Sal, much more coherent, is able to. Due to these differing abilities, Sal settles down at the end of the story, while Dean continues to live life on the road. As the novel began, Sal knew that he was in search of himself. While he did not know what his calling was at the time, but he knew that his journey on the road would help point him in the right direction. These early signs of self-actualization were indicated at the onset of his journey, as Kerouac wrote, â€Å"I didn’t really know who I was for fifteen strange seconds. I wasn’t scared; I was just somebody else, some stranger, and my whole life was a haunted life, the life of a ghost. I was halfway across America, at the dividing line between the East of my youth and the West of my future, and maybe that’s why it happened right there and then† (15).This maturity provides insight to the mental capabilities that Sal possesses, and helps show what Dean may have been lacking. M aslow also stated that self-actualization is what causes a person to be restless, yet that it is not always clear when there is a need for self actualization. Dean was certainly restless, but his inability to self-actualize hinders him from assuming a normal life. This contrast in cognition is chronicled by writer John Leland who explains,â€Å"[Sal] follows Dean out onto the road but then ultimately outgrows him, finishing the book off the road. Sal comes to recognize Deans road as destructive and limitingas long as Dean keeps going through the same motions, leaving a new baby and a new ex-wife in every town, he isnt really on the road, hes stuck in a rut. Sal, by contrast, is learning to be a man and a writer, searching for meaning and a home.† Sal returns home, and settles down with wife Laura– Kerouac married Joan Haverty– and began to chronicle his tale. Happily married and safely home, Sal is able to appreciate where he has been, and remains curious ab out where Dean is. Since he can self-actualize, he knows that he has finally found his place, or his calling in life. Kerouac perhaps dropped a hint with the last name Paradise, showing that Sal finally found his, while Dean’s never existed. Sal is finally able to appreciate Dean for breathing new life into him as they traveled across country. Years later a much older and wiser Kerouac summed up his journey with, â€Å"the best teacher is through experience and not through someone else’s distorted point of view.† Sal’s ability to self-actualize shows that over the course of the novel he has fulfilled Maslow’s hierarchy of motivations. Overall, Sal Paradise and Dean Moriarty do an excellent job in Kerouac’s On the Road showing how humans are motivated according to Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Their unique journey chronicles the struggle to satisfy physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs. Sa l and Dean each travel the same path, but because of their differing reasons and levels of motivation, end up in separate places. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is satisfied by the actions of Sal and Dean, as the needs become more complex as the novel intensifies. These motivations are present in the drives of all individuals, further supporting the idea that Kerouac used the road as a microcosm for all life. In reflection, Sal said it best, saying, â€Å"the road is life† (215).

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Theme Of Realism In Henry James - 949 Words

Andreea Emilian-Stergiotis American Literature II Prof. Terence McNulty Realism by definition, is described as the faithful representation of reality or verisimilitude.† It is an artistic movement, practiced by many authors, which took place in the late 1800’s, and began as a reaction against romanticism. Realism centers on the â€Å"psychological development† of characters, detailed portrayal of people and settings, and presenting life â€Å"as is†. William Dean Howells a realist novelist stated, â€Å"Realism is nothing more and nothing less than the truthful treatment of material†. In my opinion Henry James’ novella is a true representation of realism, depicting a time when certain expectations were placed on women in society. James’ characters†¦show more content†¦She did not seem to care what others thought of her at one point stating, â€Å"The young ladies of this country have a dreadfully poky time of it, so far as I can learn; I don’t see why I should change my habits for them† (James 356). Even though at times Daisy’s character comes across as innocent and naà ¯ve I found her to be the complete opposite. Throughout the whole story she stood her ground, refusing to tailor her persona to fit society’s norms. She also never allowed herself to be controlled or dominated by her gentleman friends, and was never submissive. While Daisy’s character chose to go ag ainst the grain, Winterbourne chooses to adapt to the European standards and expectations. His character came across as stiff and quite boring, a pushover whose opinion of Daisy was easily swayed. Winterbourne in particular, constantly changed his opinion about Daisy, he was very much intrigued, but had no clue how to handle someone like her. During their initial meeting Winterbourne was initially quite smitten with Daisy, who he perceived as beautiful stating â€Å"American girls are the best girls† (James, 330). He found her feminine beauty addictive, â€Å"he had not seen for a long time anything prettier than his fair countrywoman’s various features† (James, 331). He came to the conclusion she was a â€Å"coquette† who had a â€Å"spirit of her own†¦no mockery, no irony† (James, 331). As the story progresses, the reader begins to observeShow MoreRelatedLiterary Realism : A Movement1602 Words   |  7 PagesTaylor Jones Professor Anderson American Literature II 11 October 2015 Literary Realism Realism was a movement in literature that followed Romanticism. In sharp contrast to Romanticism, everyday things characterized the writing of this time period. The use of authentic settings, relatable characters, and plotlines made realism what it was. In order to support the goals of these works, authors, for the first time, created stories that truly represented class and gender. The topics of class and moneyRead MoreRealism in 19th Century American Fiction1014 Words   |  5 PagesREALISM IN 19th CENTURY AMERICAN FICTION The 19th century is considered to mark the origin of realism as a literary movement in the United States. American writers following the era of change in American life, moved steadily from Romanticism towards Realism, which was to lead the next step of Naturalism. The process was gradual, reflecting the periodic fluctuations in the history of American society. In this process, the Civil War provided a dramatic point of cleavage. In 1865 at the end of theRead MoreThe Birth Of The Realism And Modernism Era1322 Words   |  6 PagesEdith Wharton Literary History The birth of the Realism and Modernism era appeared during the late eighteenth century to early nineteenth century. Both Realism and Modernism are evident in many of Edith Wharton’s literary works. Realism came from chaotic times where it â€Å"encompasses the period of time from the Civil War†(Realism from American). The United States grew enormously after the civil war with â€Å"the rapid growth in industrialism and urbanization, an expanding population base due to immigrationRead More 1870-1880 Essay1417 Words   |  6 Pages1870’s a new literary movement called Realism was on the rise in America. Three American authors wrote novels in the 1870’s that displayed the greatness of the future. These books included, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) by Samuel Longhorn Clemens, The American (1877) by Henry James, and Their Wedding Journey (1872) by William Dean Howells (Brown 28). These authors looked at life as a realist would, and wrote about how li fe was lived in a literal sense. Realism was also seen in painting in theRead MoreThe Jolly Corner, By Henry James1585 Words   |  7 Pages Henry James originally published â€Å"The Jolly Corner,† in 1908. He was a master in short stories and novella. â€Å"The Jolly Corner,† was about a man who once lived in the United States and migrated to Europe to pursue the love he once had for art, and reject a life in his family business. â€Å"The Aleph† later was published by Jorge Luis Borges in 1945, he wrote a story about, an aspiring sphere that, the author s character, Carlos had in his basement, that allows one to see all places in the world at allRead MoreEdith Wharton1557 Words   |  7 Pageslike everyone else, possibly worse than the average person. Edith Wharton rose above societys walls to overcome barriers such as equality that existed for young women in the late eighteen hundreds. Edith Wharton was an author in the Age of Realism who stood out to me. I selected to research her because of her societal rank and how she led two lives. One life was an author who rebelled against the very society that brought her up and the other life was the wealthy socialite. I also was intriguedRead MoreLeaves And Survivor Essay2472 Words   |  10 Pagesback to Rome and Greece. How does one differentiate from those written in ancient times and those written in the eighteenth century? Ian Watt in his book The Rise of the Novel says that realism is the major thing that separates the two. ( ) He looked to many historians and novelists and says â€Å"they have seen realism as the defining characteristic which differentiates the work of the early eighteenth century novelists from previous fiction.† ( ) With this, he says that the novel officially beganRead More Hawthornes Young Goodman Brown – The Romanticism and Realism2999 Words   |  12 PagesRomanticism and Realism  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚        Ã‚   The reader finds in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† a mix of realism and romanticism, with the former dominating the latter.    Commenting on the presence of romanticism in Hawthorne’s short stories, Morse Peckham in â€Å"The Development of Hawthorne’s Romanticism,† talks about the author’s usage of romantic themes:    In his early short stories and sketches Hawthorne was particularly concerned with three Romantic themes: guilt, alienationRead More Comparing the Use of Setting in The Shawl and The Portable Phonograph859 Words   |  4 PagesUse of Setting in The Shawl and The Portable Phonograph  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚   In literature, setting is often used to enhance or develop characters, provide realism, and create a mood or atmosphere for a story (Roberts 256). Two short stories, The Shawl by Cynthia Ozick and Walter Van Tillburg Clark’s The Portable Phonograph explore victims of war in the vivid settings that the authors have created. Although both works are vague as to geographic setting and place in time, the authors’ detailedRead MoreLiterature Questions Essay example1159 Words   |  5 PagesMagazines d. Novels Feedback The correct answer is: Telegrams Question  2 Correct Mark 1.00 out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The work of Henry James can be most precisely characterized as Select one: a. dramatic realism b. psychological realism   c. understated realism d. natural realism Feedback The correct answer is: psychological realism Question  3 Correct Mark 1.00 out of 1.00 Flag question Question text The girl in Hills Like White Elephants is also called: Select one:

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Obesity A Health Policy Issue - 1153 Words

POLICY ANALYSIS PAPER OBESITY: A HEALTH POLICY ISSUE HSM 516 BY CHIKODILI FAITH OBI 913425038 SUBMITTED TO DR MEI WEN DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH SCIENCES OBESITY: A HEALTH POLICY ISSUE Obesity has greatly increased among adults, teenagers and children in America. Statistics has shown that about two in every three adult in America is Obese or over weight. The children and teenagers are not left out also; the obesity prevalence is three times what it was in the previous years between 1970s and 2000 (Klegal, et al 2002). The occurrence of obesity has resulted in genetic, political, sociological and economic consequences (Hong T., Glazer G., 2005). Several institutions have been implicated by the government, for example, schools, family and genetics all play a part in the obesity epidemic. Certain policy determination caused by urbanization and has reduced the number of individuals walking or even taking part in daily exercise (Hong T., Glazer G., 2005). Policies that were formulated to support and encourage farmers and protect consumers from high priced agricultural food prices has resulted in food excesses and overproduction (Hong T., Glazer G., 2005). Technological advancement has reduced the number of workers that go to work daily and as such, some people work from home in the twentieth century; this has further reduced the daily activities performed by individuals (Hong T., Glazer G., 2005). Improvement in food processing and technology has led to the production of varietiesShow MoreRelatedPolicy Priority Issue : The Childhood Obesity Essay1614 Words   |  7 PagesPolicy priority issue: The childhood obesity Childhood obesity is one of the major public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of obesity is increasing globally. In 2013, the number of overweight children under the age of five was estimated over 42 million. Childhood obesity can cause premature death and disability in adulthood. Overweight and obese children will grow up to become obese adults and are more likely to develop diseases like cardiovascular diseases and diabetes at aRead MoreEssay on Policy Priority Issue1648 Words   |  7 PagesPolicy Priority Issue: The Childhood Obesity Pandemic Marla C. Khalikov Chamberlain College of Nursing NR506 – 10999: Health Care Policy Winter 2014 Policy Priority Issue: The Childhood Obesity Pandemic Childhood obesity is a global pandemic requiring prioritization in policy and health care reform. It has many effects on acute and long term health, including increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and certain types of cancer. This paper addressesRead MoreThe Minority Action Committee ( Mac ) Of San Diego Essay1542 Words   |  7 Pagesminorities through the adoption of favorable policies. MAC is highly concerned with the high obesity rates amongst minority communities. This policy brief will outline the factors pertaining to the persistent obesity rates amongst minorities – specifically, Latino and African American communities — and provide policy suggestions to the San Diego city council MAC believes will assist the city of San Diego in reducing the obesity rate in minority communities. Issue The Centers for Disease Control and PreventionRead MoreThe Media s Impact On Health Policies1068 Words   |  5 Pagesinformation about certain health issues from mainstream media outlets. Health professionals take different approaches to understand a health-related problem that can affect the potential interventions and policies implemented. The approach taken by the media when presenting information on health can have a major impact on how the public understands health. It is, therefore, important to examine how the representation of health in the media can impact health policies. A specific health concern that is dramaticallyRead MoreThe Importance Of Childhood Obesity894 Words   |  4 PagesAlthough some countries acknowledge the obesity epidemic, most countries are lagging behind in applying health policy to obesity prevention (Zhang et al., 2014, p. 179). With the exceptions of Quebec, Canada’s advertising policy is restricted to self-regulation with little monitorin g in the intensity and frequency of unhealthy foods and beverages advertisements to children (Hawkes Harris, 2011, as cited in Hypertension Advisory Committee, 2013, p. 8). With this information, Canada’s current systemRead MoreEffects Of Obesity On The Canadian Federal System889 Words   |  4 Pagesimplications of obesity on the Canadian federal system, the issue of obesity also targets the social circle of Canadian media, culture, values and global reputation. If the federal government does not take an active step in the stop against unhealthy eating, bad life style choices and obesity then the problem will continue to escalate. Public policy can be used to bring awareness to issues that effect and benefit many. There was an important study documented in the European journal of public health that suggestsRead MoreObesity Is A Global Problem1150 Words   |  5 PagesObesity is a global problem. The results from population-based studies pooled across countries show an inc rease in the mean Body Mass Index (BMI) and prevalence of obesity between 1975 and 2014, with a higher increase in women (21.7kg/m2 to 24.2kg/m2 for men and 22.1kg/m2 to 24.4kg/m2 for women). Within the same period, there was also a corresponding increase in life expectancy (59 to 71 years). In the general sense, the increase in BMI and prevalence of obesity should correspond to a decrease inRead MoreObesity : A Study Focused On Obesity1435 Words   |  6 PagesA study focused on obesity published by Navaneelan and Janz (2014) concluded that, â€Å"Obesity has become one of the world’s greatest health concerns and threatens to undo gains made in life expectancy during the 20th century† (p. 1). â€Å"Obesity is defined as abnormal excessive fat accumulation that may impair health† (World Health Organization, 2015). In order to tackle the concerns of obesity, nurses should develop an understanding of the family’s needs and goals in order to determine famil y nursingRead MoreEssay On Fighting Obesity Through Taxation1408 Words   |  6 PagesFighting obesity through taxation: Are fat-taxes effective? 1. Introduction The global growing number of obese among adults and children is alarming and is one of the biggest public health issues that health systems are facing (Laura Cornelsen et al. 2014). In 2014 adults overweight prevalence was estimated at 1.9 billion worldwide of these 600 million were obese and this number keeps increasing at a noticeable pace. Nearly one-thirds of the world population is obese or overweight and 41 millionRead MoreHealth Care Cost For Obesity Essay809 Words   |  4 Pages Trends in Health Care Cost for Obesity The trend of health care costs is still primarily based on treatment and less on prevention. Adult obesity is a significant cause of preventable chronic diseases and one cause of increased health care costs in the United States. The cost of obesity impacts each state and community. Adult obesity can be associated with chronic diseases like diabetes, heart disease, stroke, osteoarthritis, and some cancers, just to name a few, and account for more than 75 percent

Customer Knowledge Management Social Media †

Question: Discuss about the Customer Knowledge Management Social Media. Answer: Introduction This report describes the supply strategy of Starbucks. Starbucks is a famous chain of espresso stores built up in Seattle in 1971. Along with coffee, Starbucks provide hot and cold coffee which can be prepared to a consumer order, for instance, the brand Frappuccino liquid refreshment with different kinds of taste and syrups. This study describes and evaluates an issue with the supply strategy in the Starbucks Company. The study applies a relevant model theory such as Procurement life cycle model to reduce the problems identified in the Starbucks supply strategy. The report also recommends strategic plans which enable Starbucks to improve its procurement in order to become more competitive in the business. The main aim of this report is to seek to consistently enhance procurement execution of Starbucks and ensure procurement activities are integrated and to ensure that purchases are attempted through open and all around competitors. The evaluation of issues in the supply strategy of Starbucks enable the business to determine the opportunities for working with other organizations, both in public sector or private sector, in order to generate more cost-effective, creative and sustainable procurement choices for the business. According to Hong and Kwon (2012), Starbucks is a worldwide caf situated in Seattle, the United States of America. Starbucks is the greatest cafe organization on the world, with 20891 stores in 62 nations. The identity of Starbucks is in itself an incredibly brand which is famous as a coffee store. It is incredibly check mindful, with a web based systems administration nearness that traverses the world. The supply strategy of Starbucks operates and arranges multiple international distribution centers basically with the whole control in United States, Europe and in Asia. The supply strategy for Starbucks uses easy one simple scorecard method to examine its supply chain viably. Starbucks assesses the security in operations, timely advancement and demand fill rates, a sum of complete inventory and stock network price and undertaking save stores. Starbucks see normally useful that is long term provider organization as the way to its future advancement and accomplishment. Manageability is at the focal point of Starbuck's sourcing practices (Lee et al., 2014). Starbucks has strict supplier screening rules keeping in mind the end goal to ensure that each provider is as per the organization's reasonable, green and compelling approach to manage business operations. There are some issues also present in the supply strategy of Starbucks which are described are as follows: Higher wage payment: According to Lo and Power (2010), the increases in prices of the end product have pushed the company due to the higher cost of raw material and work. It is battled that an extension in the federal minimum wage will unfavorably influence the company and its formally thin edges, especially at approved stores. Starbucks already pays compensation significantly higher than the stipulated minimum and is prominent as workers decision. Increase the prices of coffee beans: Coffee costs, after being in a slump for quite a while, have started rising afresh. According to Qi et al. (2011), the basic contributor towards the expansion in expenses of espresso beans is the dry season in Brazil and Vietnam, the greatest creators of espresso beans. Further, the rise in demand for coffee has prompted a diminishment in the stock levels of coffee for the past twelve consecutive quarters. As a result, the company saw a spike in the cost of the commodity. Since, coffee is the major raw material used a climb in the coffee beans costs, combined with the supply shortage, is probably going to influence Starbucks margins adversely. Customers Have More Choices and are increasingly more demanding: Consumers are demanding more prominent assortments of high-quality, cost-effective items with accessibility over numerous channels (Christopher, 2016). They are focused on comfort, dependability, easily available, and anticipate their chosen supplier cater their demands over different channels. There is a significant gap, however between what customer needs from the company and the abilities Starbucks possess today, start with the less-than-streamlined supply chain. Information technology methods: The emerging significance of Starbucks is driving a requirement for more adaptable, understanding technology and frameworks. Starbucks must create new methods in order to serve their customers but are often encumbered with supply chain not intended for these new items delivery channels (Hugos, 2011). Discrete and disconnected legitimate methods do not often lend company to seamlessly supporting the complete end-to-end customer involvement which is an objective of Starbucks. On the other side, there is the evaluation of the above issues in the supply strategy of Starbucks, which enables the company to overcome this issues and challenges and perform at their best in the market which are explained as follows (Parmigiani et al., 2011)s. Improving the complex: The initial step of the changing arrangement is to distinguish Starbuck's inventory network system organization and drew in taking a difficult course of action and simplifying it with the goal that each activity could be categorized as one of the four major production network capacities, such as design, source, make and convey. For the instance, the significance of the past experience is the accompanying principles and directions in an essential way. For instance, anybody drew in with intending to be it creation arranging, energizing, or new item presented was set in the arranging gathering. Sourcing practices were assembled into two zones that are espresso and non-espresso acquisition. According to Awaysheh and Klassen (2010), all assembling regardless of whether done in-house or by get a creator was appointed to the make down to sensible unit. With everything taken into account, all staff working in transportation, scattering, and customer advantage was decid ed to the pass on social occasion. After the stock system limits were redone, the diverse workplaces turned their respect for the second focus of the generation organize change which is lessening price and enhance effectiveness. As an important part of this attempt, the crediting pack wore down perceiving the cost drivers that were pushing up costs. The collecting bunch built up a more suitable model for passing on espresso seed to its preparing plants, with the objective of putting away in the zone where the item is sold. The advantages of that approach were rapidly evidently self-evident, regionalizing its coffee creation which enabled Starbucks to reduce its transportation expenses and lead times (Du et al., 2012). Single logistic method: According to Ross et al. (2015), the production of a single, general coordination framework was fundamental for Starbucks as a result of its essential store arrange. The company, everything considered, brings espresso beans from Latin America, Africa, and Asia to the United States and Europe in sea compartments. Starbucks runs five close-by stream centers in the United States, two are association had and the other three are worked by untouchable coordination affiliations. It also has two dispersing centers in Europe and two in Asia, that is altogether overseen by Third Party Logistics. Coffee is just a lone of different things held at these movement centers. They likewise handle differing things required by Starbucks' retail outlet's start and end from furniture to cappuccino mix. Depend on their zones, the stores are given by either the sweeping, neighborhood transport centers or by tinier stockrooms called central scattering centers (Johnsen et al., 2014). S tarbucks utilizes 33 such central spread concentrations in the United States, seven in the Asia and Pacific range, in Canada five, and in Europe three, at introduce, everything aside from one is worked by outsider coordination organizations. The coordination group also met with its outsider coordination organizations and investigated gainfulness and contract rates. To help the review technique, the gathering made step by step scorecards for measuring those vendors. Gaining company trust: According to Ivanov (2010), Starbucks begun its production chain change effort, it has lessened costs worldwide without managing administration transport. There is a considerable measure of certainty that company now are rotated around organization also, quality to give what Starbucks stores require and what Starbucks unmistakable business customer require. To manage that criticalness for development and to guarantee a future stream of limit into the affiliation, Starbucks starting at now started an activity to enroll top graduated class of store arrange direction programs. Alongside its enrolling program, the Company expects to give continuous training to its present laborers to empower them to also develop their store arrange data and aptitudes. Starbucks needs to guarantee to have thought pioneers. The mixture of newcomers will empower Starbucks to remain concentrated on its stock framework mission of passing on things with an unpredictable state of organiza tion and not any more insignificant conceivable price to its supplies in the United States and across the world (Yeh and Chuang, 2011). Application of Procurement life cycle model According to Dhillon (2013), procurement may be defined as the securing of products or services from any outer sources. The procurement cycle is the whole procedure from securing to delivery to installment. In other words, Administration in any company must esteem the specialty of grabbing products and organizations. The procurement cycle searches for after specific activities for seeing a need or needs of the association through the last progress of the respect of the thing or contract. Proper organization of open and corporate assets is crucial while managing this key approach, paying little heed to whether in strong or powerless monetary markets. Following a displayed well-ordered strategy will help organization viably finish its targets. Each organization that works business needs to purchase materials, for instance, raw materials, organizations and so on. The procurement cycle has pushed toward winding up some portion of the present profitable business operation. The association can get those materials as in-house creation or outside acquirement. The procurement cycle theory has been applied to Starbucks supply strategy which is explained as follows (Akintoye et al., 2012): Identify needs: According to Umeda et al. (2012), the business must aware about the new product requirements and needs of customers. The product might be one that should be reordered, or it might be another thing for the company. In other words, the first stage of procurement cycle process starts when a business has a requirement for a good or service. These products or service can be inside that is any materials required to maintain the business or outside materials that the business will in the long run offer. This stage additionally incorporates setting a financial plan. Starbucks must recognize the needs of customers so that they will able to create an innovative product for the consumers and enhance their customer base. Particular requirements: According to Nguyen (2016), the second stage of procurement cycle is to choose the suitable product which is fundamental for the company. A couple of ventures have measures with a specific end goal to have the recognized judgments. Part numbers help recognize these for a couple of associations. Diverse organizations have no point of reference. If not, at that point the business must pick the key thing by using identifiers, for example, shading or weight. Starbucks must identify the correct requirements of the customers and choose the particular product which fulfills the customer needs and wants (Hill et al., 2014). Examine supplier choices: Supplier selection is the main important stage in the procurement cycle procedure. This stage is all about sourcing potential sellers and deciding their capacity to give the best value and quality for company products or services. While the stage appears to be direct, it is essential to find sellers who not just convey an amazing product at an aggressive cost, however, who have a strong reputation. Preferably, the company would manufacture a commonly gainful relationship that can keep going long term, if necessary. Starbucks actively looking for assorted possessed organizations to buy from, and company establishes prosperous groups. Starbucks trust their Supplier Diversity Program which has been an awesome achievement, and the company is happy to report that the measure of business Starbucks lead with assorted providers develops each year (Lehmann, 2012). Cost and conditions: According to Goldsmith (2010), the business will examine exceptionally critical information to pick the best cost and terms for the thing. This will rely upon if the organization needs things quickly available things or particular materials. As a rule, the business will research three suppliers in advance it settles on an extreme conclusion. The price tag will be put forward in the Order. Unless generally given in the relevant Order, the value put forward in the Order incorporates all appropriate charges, obligations, levies, additional charges, and different sums assessable by any services specialist concerning the Products or Services. The price tag may not be adjusted or changed without the earlier composed understanding of Starbucks. Purchase order: According to Davila et al. (2012), the purchase order is utilized the formal contract used to purchase the item. The purchase order designs the esteem, judgments and terms and conditions of the item or advantage and some other additional commitments. In other words, a purchase order might be characterized a phase of acquisition cycle which is a formal requirement to a seller to supply certain materials or administrations under the particular conditions. A purchase order can be made with a reference or without reference to a purchaser request, an interest for reference, or another purchase order. Delivery: The purchase order must be conveyed, as a rule by fax, email, by and by, email or other electronic means. According to Smith et al. (2010), there is some specific movement procedure which is exhibited in the securing records. The beneficiary by then gets receipt of the buy arranges. The two social events keep a copy on file. This stage of procurement cycle relates to Starbucks as Company must comply with the additional demands regarding the delivery and shipment of products as set forth in Starbucks the Supplier Guidance. Expediting: Campaigns of the buy arrange addresses the convenience of the associations or materials passed on. It winds up being especially essential if there any shot that there are any deferrals. The issues much of the time noted join allocate, advancement times and work culmination (Chua and Banerjee, 2013). Receive and checking of Purchase: According to Flynn et al. (2010), once the sending organization passes on the product, the beneficiary perceives or, on the other hand rejects the things. Association of the things gives the relationship to pay for them. Bill of purchase Order: Three records must match when a receipt demands divide that is just the receipt, the tolerant document and the primary buy arrange. According to Monczka et al. (2015), the understanding of these reports gives attestation from both the beneficiary and supplier. Any assortments must be settled before the recipient pays the bill. When in doubt, portion is profited, check bank trades, credit letters or different sorts of electronic trades. Documentation maintenance: Because of audits, the association must keep up original and correct records. These consolidation purchase records to check any cost information and purchase asking for to avow ensure information. Purchase records reference future purchases too (Prajogo and Olhager, 2012). Strategic techniques recommended for Starbucks According to Tate et al. (2010), the major strategic plans which can be adopted by Starbucks in order to improve its procurement in the business with the aim to become more competitive in the market are explained as follows (Leung et al., 2014): Build up a governing inventory network board: An administering chamber's motivation is to provide guidance and enable change to stock framework strategy with the company's general system. The leading group of trustees' participation ought to merge the pioneers of the stock framework organization and furthermore corporate specialists, distinguishing strength unit executives, and other persuading company leaders. In a perfect world, the chamber should hold routinely coordinated get-togethers. In any case, paying little notice to the probability that it doesn't, its minor closeness will exhibit that stock structure affiliation has the endorsing and duty of senior authority. This strategic plan helps the Starbucks to remove the barriers to achievement that are present within the company. The council also offers a viable forum for cross-functional communication. This strategic plan gives Starbucks a dynamic overseeing committee makes an opportunity for specialty unit leaders to give the i nventory network administration authority with data in regards to future techniques and ventures. Legitimately adjust and staff the inventory network association: It can be hard to manage the stock structure work in a way that will help its sufficiency and pass on proportionate central focuses to the organization. A few affiliations are best served by embeddings equipped stock structure association specialists in different perceiving qualities units. For others, a more idea operation is extraordinary. An essential number of the dynamic associations we have worked with, regardless, have understood a crossbreed approach that solidifies a joined system to get simultaneousness with decentralized execution to overhaul benefit. This strategic plan involves placing procurement, logistics, contract administration, and demand planning activities to Starbucks in order to manage the supply strategy in a proper manner. Create innovative work for customers: Ideally in-class associations, by separating, managers understand that the system should empower them to better manage their supply chains. They make sense of how to use development to convey favorable information without playing out an alternate workaround to focus and see the data. They see the centrality of a persuading purchase to-pay process and have gotten frameworks and parts to get the best great conditions from development. Thus, this strategic plan helps Starbucks to choose the appropriate innovation and advancement that best fulfills the procedural requirements of the supply chain of Company and help the Company to increase its market share. Build up co-operation with main providers: Best-in-class affiliations work by and by with providers long after an arrangement has been settled upon. In the present situation, this is called provider relationship alliance. Regardless, that initiates one-way correspondence that is instigating the provider how to do it. Two-way correspondence, which requires both purchaser and merchant to generally deal with the relationship which is also initiating by organization. A similarly fitting term for this best practice may be affiliation together association, with pros from the two social affairs coordinating to enhance the buyer relationship. Starbucks can adopt this strategic plan to establish a viable alliance management plan with the major providers which involve: Involvement in collaborative strategy sourcing: Strategic sourcing is an establishment of successful creation arranges organization. Regardless, a helpful imperative sourcing action makes stunningly better results. Organization request for information and information regarding their objectives and techniques from those clients, which may join viable regions, for instance, account and bookkeeping, arranging, operations, support, security, prosperity and condition, and quality verification any inside claim to fame unit or distinction point that will add to the movement's thriving. This approach influences Starbucks to guarantee openness of game plans and furthermore achieves chopping down aggregate cost, streamlined approaches and extended responsiveness to customers advancing requirements. Focus on the sum of total cost of proprietorship: Recognizing the aggregate cost of proprietorship requires looking a whole system of getting and utilizing the thing or organizations, something that can basically occur with speculation and commitment from both the purchaser and the merchant. Starbucks will set up an aggregate cost of proprietorship air as an objective that the supply alliance union needs to get a handle on and spread all through the whole venture. This is not the basic strategy, be that as it may, to convince association's legitimate specialist to truly sort out a motivator over cost. Put contracts under the supply chain activities: Purchasing and obtaining groups frequently arrange critical potential hold stores during the sourcing technique however never totally comprehend those venture reserves. The explanations for this move, yet they regularly consolidate a powerlessness to grant contract terms to the affected affiliations and a failure to screen contract consistency. The main advantage of this strategic plan will help Starbucks to the agreements are gathered and kept up in a central repository. Conclusion From the above report, it has been concluded that supply strategy is the important tool of every business and necessary to organization achievement and customer fulfillment. This report describes the supply chain management of Starbucks Company. The report explains the importance of supply strategy in Starbucks as it is a significant element in organizations activities and a necessary component to operational viability which can be followed to consumer fulfillment and organizations achievements. The supply strategy of Starbucks is like the backbone of a company which handles the difficult problems of the business organization, for example, fast development of multinational companies, worldwide expanding and ecological concerns which directly or indirectly influence the organization strategy. The study describes the main issues with the supply strategy in the Starbucks which create problems in the success of the Company. The report also evaluates the above issues and provides measures to overcome these issues with the supply strategy of Company. The study applied the procurement cycle which is a cyclical process of basic stages when purchasing goods or services in relating to the supply strategy of Starbucks. These procurement cycle theories help the organization to determine the opportunities and examine the suppliers which are dependent on sound ethical norms and standards. The report recommends some strategic plan which Starbucks can be adopted in order to improve its procurement process to become more competitive in the market. References Akintoye, A., Goulding, J. and Zawdie, G. eds., 2012.Construction innovation and process improvement. John Wiley Sons. Awaysheh, A. and Klassen, R.D., 2010. The impact of supply chain structure on the use of supplier socially responsible practices.International Journal of Operations Production Management,30(12), pp.1246-1268. Christopher, M., 2016.Logistics supply chain management. Pearson UK. Chua, A.Y. and Banerjee, S., 2013. Customer knowledge management via social media: the case of Starbucks.Journal of Knowledge Management,17(2), pp.237-249. Davila, T., Epstein, M. and Shelton, R., 2012.Making innovation work: How to manage it, measure it, and profit from it. FT press. Dhillon, B., 2013.Life cycle costing: techniques, models and applications. Routledge. Du, T.C., Lai, V.S., Cheung, W. and Cui, X., 2012. Willingness to share information in a supply chain: A partnership-data-process perspective.Information Management,49(2), pp.89-98. Flynn, B.B., Huo, B. and Zhao, X., 2010. The impact of supply chain integration on performance: A contingency and configuration approach.Journal of operations management,28(1), pp.58-71. Goldsmith, S., 2010.The power of social innovation: How civic entrepreneurs ignite community networks for good. John Wiley Sons. Hill, C.W., Jones, G.R. and Schilling, M.A., 2014.Strategic management: theory: an integrated approach. Cengage Learning. Hong, P. and Kwon, H.B., 2012. Emerging issues of procurement management: a review and prospect.International Journal of Procurement Management 4,5(4), pp.452-469. Hugos, M.H., 2011.Essentials of supply chain management(Vol. 62). John Wiley Sons. Ivanov, D., 2010. An adaptive framework for aligning (re) planning decisions on supply chain strategy, design, tactics, and operations.International journal of production research,48(13), pp.3999-4017. Johnsen, T., Howard, M. and Miemczyk, J., 2014.Purchasing and supply chain management: A sustainability perspective. Routledge. Lee, C.K.M., Lin, D. and Pasari, R., 2014. Strategic procurement from forward contract and spot market.Industrial Management Data Systems,114(5), pp.778-796. Lehmann, C.F., 2012.Strategy and business process management: techniques for improving execution, adaptability, and consistency. CRC Press. Leung, J., Cheung, W. and Chu, S.C., 2014. Aligning RFID applications with supply chain strategies.Information Management,51(2), pp.260-269. Lo, S.M. and Power, D., 2010. An empirical investigation of the relationship between product nature and supply chain strategy.Supply Chain Management: An International Journal,15(2), pp.139-153. Monczka, R.M., Handfield, R.B., Giunipero, L.C. and Patterson, J.L., 2015.Purchasing and supply chain management. Cengage Learning. Nguyen, H., 2016. Supplier Selection Process in Caf Industry: Case: X Coffee vs. Starbucks. Parmigiani, A., Klassen, R.D. and Russo, M.V., 2011. Efficiency meets accountability: Performance implications of supply chain configuration, control, and capabilities.Journal of Operations Management,29(3), pp.212-223. Prajogo, D. and Olhager, J., 2012. Supply chain integration and performance: The effects of long-term relationships, information technology and sharing, and logistics integration.International Journal of Production Economics,135(1), pp.514-522. Qi, Y., Zhao, X. and Sheu, C., 2011. The impact of competitive strategy and supply chain strategy on business performance: the role of environmental uncertainty.Decision Sciences,42(2), pp.371-389. Ross, R.B., Pandey, V. and Ross, K.L., 2015. Sustainability and strategy in US agri-food firms: An assessment of current practices.International Food and Agribusiness Management Review,18(1), pp.17-48. Smith, N.C., Palazzo, G. and Bhattacharya, C.B., 2010. Marketings consequences: Stakeholder marketing and supply chain corporate social responsibility issues.Business Ethics Quarterly,20(4), pp.617-641. Tate, W.L., Ellram, L.M. and Kirchoff, J.F., 2010. Corporate social responsibility reports: a thematic analysis related to supply chain management.Journal of supply chain management,46(1), pp.19-44. Umeda, Y., Takata, S., Kimura, F., Tomiyama, T., Sutherland, J.W., Kara, S., Herrmann, C. and Duflou, J.R., 2012. Toward integrated product and process life cycle planningAn environmental perspective.CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology,61(2), pp.681-702. Yeh, W.C. and Chuang, M.C., 2011. Using multi-objective genetic algorithm for partner selection in green supply chain problems.Expert Systems with applications,38(4), pp.4244-4253.

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Marshall Plan and Its Effectiveness free essay sample

Many authors believe that if the U. S. aid wasn’t aplenty, there would have been an economic order collapse in Europe. The funds provided were used for investments as well as government expenditures. There was ease with which the European countries could import from the U. S. Any hold-ups in the economic growth forum were obliterated and an age of success was to follow soon. People were speculating that the Truman government would withdraw their aid soon as his government had a weak image. Moreover, looking at Stalin’s government’s success, people had written off Western Europe relative to its Eastern counterparts. However, the U. S. stuck to their task year-on-year from 1948 to 1951 contributing $8 billion to food, fertilizers and the like. The remaining $5 billion was spent on fuel, vehicles, machinery and other commodities (De Long Eichengreen, 1991). In fact, Charles Mee, a renowned author sung praised of how the American imports encouraged employment at the European end (Mee, 1984). We will write a custom essay sample on Marshall Plan and Its Effectiveness or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Was the plan as effective as it has been brought out by the plethora of authors? An interesting fact is that completeness was achieved in most reconstruction efforts even before the plan embarked. In fact, in the beginning of 1948, â€Å"bottlenecks were scarce, and markets were good at alleviating their impact. † Moreover, the magnitude of the plan has been questioned by a few critiques. As suggested by Alan Milwards, (Milwards, 1984) the economic growth of Western Europe could not have been drastically increased on just the basis of $13 billion. These critiques believe that the predisposition of the Western European governments had a lot to do with the rebuilding of the economies: (a) an economy already existed in which both the private and the state had a role to play in directing the market and (b) people were of anti-communist sentiments as they didn’t want any other experience of WWII ever in their lives. Thus, my belief is that, though the Marshall Plan was one of the major factors through which Western Europe was able to stand on its own feet – it wasn’t the only reason because of which the rapid pace of the economic growth was achieved. Bibliography